Cities in Transformation: Class, Capital, and the State (Urban Affairs Annual Reviews)

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In cases of high-end and corporate projects, informalization is also precipitated by an increasing trend to favour visual communication, in the form of 3D images, models and videos of the proposed projects, in decision-making processes. For example, a decision-making process of a real estate project may then be based on a 3D visualization showing aesthetically pleasing elevation details yet lacking any consideration for social and physical sustainability concerns.

According to Barthel , p. Harvey , p.

Smart Cities: Solving Urban Problems Using Technology

These subsidies take on different forms of urban managerial processes of filtration. Contrary to formal declarations and propaganda of the state essentially advocating its own disappearance, it is very clear that the state is still very present, heavily involved and there to stay Daher, p. The financial contribution of the state is considerable, with prime urban land made available at very cheap prices forming a greater part of the subsidy. Other forms of subsidies include tax exemptions, infrastructure provisions and the elimination of all barriers and red tape in addition to the passing of favourable building regulations and zoning ordinances e.

Of course, such subsidies are facilitated by the new urban management practices of individuals e. Similar state practices are found in other parts of the Arab world. Krijnen and Fawaz , p. Peck , p. This has been associated with an historical wave of creative destruction in institutional and regulatory structures. The privatization of the electricity sector can be taken as an example of the changing role of the state with regard to its role as a public service provider in general and urban infrastructure provider in particular.

Verdeil , p.

However, the current privatization scheme of the electricity sector, 16 wherein the state is no longer subsidizing that sector Verdeil, , p. Nowadays, and with decreasing rent made available either due to rising oil prices or decreased remittances , it is very obvious that the state is shifting to a neoliberal economy where the formal state rhetoric advocates privatization and withdrawal from social services and infrastructure provision.

The irony is that the state is at the same time subsidizing real estate development, benefitting the transnational capitalist class and multinational companies and agencies with which certain state agencies and high-ranking officials are entering into different types of partnerships.

A detailed review of many of the neoliberal high-end projects in Amman e. Another observation concerns internationalization at a broader level. As such, the research examines financial organizations e. According to Parker , p. Nevertheless, an expanded presence of corporate urban realities and images simultaneously prevails. On the whole, the visual strategies and planning models of urban governance adopted in these projects is largely similar, despite the wide range of projects and project locations.

Urban Studies Journals

Ley , p. There is thus a great disparity between the rhetoric of urban policies on the one hand and the resulting reality. Elsheshtawy ed. May 12—15, BANK, A. Perthes ed. CHAN, E. LEE Ababsa and R. Daher eds. BROWN FAWAZ LEY, D. MAC, M. Mayer eds. PECK, J.

This global city is definitely circulating not only surplus capital from oil, but also images and models of neoliberal development. The remodeled area, previously the site of the General Jordan Armed Forces Headquarters, spans over , m 2 in the heart of Amman and will contain a built-up area of approximately 1,, m 2.

Ideas and Trends

Critics assume that several of these low-income housing projects, ironically executed by the same developers and investors e. For example, private water suppliers using water trucks refuse to deliver due to the distant location of the project. The national company for water provision Mihahuna is also reluctant to provide this basic necessity due to the distant location and the very low occupancy, so far, in these projects. This rate is extremely expensive when considering that this is a state-driven initiative addressing low-income housing for the poor.

The Committee was very critical of such partnerships and of the idea of building boutique hotels in the middle of downtown of Amman. One such hotel is planned right next to the Roman Theater and is supposed to adapt an existing historic public library into part of the hotel facilities. More e-Services. Business Owners.

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The Contradictions of Capitalist Planning

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The planning standards affect the allocation of scarce land and financial resources. They should, therefore, be applied with a degree of flexibility. Trade-offs may be necessary so that the community at large could benefit most from the development. They were to realise this purpose by ensuring equitable and balanced spatial distribution of development; orderly, efficient and coordinated spatial socioeconomic development; facilitating equitable distribution of services; integration of the functions of rural and urban settlements; and the optimum use of land for agriculture, forestry, industry, human settlements, infrastructure and other competing land uses.

The review of the Land Act reveals that one of the objectives of this Act is to ensure proper planning and well-coordinated development of urban areas. However, it protects security of land tenure rather than facilitating land development. This makes it weak in promoting planned urbanisation. Indeed, many of the urban development projects proposed by KCCA meet stiff opposition from private land owners, including Buganda Kingdom [ 99 ].

The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda also recognises and protects private rights in land, even in the midst of Kampala City.